Food-Energy-Water Nexus


Xavier, Alexandre C., Scanlon, Bridget R., King, Carey W. , and Alves, Aline I. New Improved Brazilian Daily Weather Gridded Data (1961-2020), International Journal of Climatology, 42 (16), 8390-8404, 2022 (article online).   Supplemental file explains how to download and interpret the data in NetCDF format.



Rodriguez, Renata del G., Scanlon, Bridget R., King, Carey W., Scarpare, Fabio V., Xavier, Alexandre C., and Pruski, Fernando F., Biofuel-water-land nexus in the last agricultural frontier region of the Brazilian CerradoApplied Energy, 2018, 231, 1330-1345, online link.



Xavier, Alexandre C., King, Carey W., Scanlon, Bridget R. An update of Xavier, King and Scanlon (2016) daily precipitation gridded data set for the Brazil, Proceedings of the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Remote Sensing, May 28-31, 2017, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil. Conference Paper: online link.  Data Available: see Data page of this website.



Sanders, Kelly T and King, Carey W., “Integration of Water and Energy Sustainability,” Chapter 13 of Sustainability Water Management and Technologies: Sustainable Water Management, Volume I, Editor, Daniel H. Chen, Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2016.

King, Carey W.  Information Theory to Assess Relations Between Energy and Structure of the U.S. Economy Over Time. Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality, 2016, 1 (2), 10. doi: 10.1007/s41247-016-0011-y.  View paper free online here: link, or download a pre-print draft: pdficon_small link.   Read an extensive blog discussing the interpretation of this paper.

King, Carey W. and Carbajales-Dale, Michael. Food-energy-water metrics across scales: project to system level, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2016, 6 (1), 39-49 (article link).

Xavier, Alexandre C., King, Carey W. and Scanlon, Bridget R. Daily gridded meteorological variables in Brazil (1980-2013), International Journal of Climatology, 2016, 36 (6), 2644–2659  (article online).      Supplemental and README file to help understand the structure of the data.  Direct link to data (login required; access is free):   See Data Downloads page for access to data and supplementary material.



Cook, M. A., King, C. W., Davidson, F. T. & Webber, M. E. Assessing the impacts of droughts and heat waves at thermoelectric power plants in the United States using integrated regression, thermodynamic, and climate models, Energy Reports, 2015, 1, 193-203 (article online).



Libra, Jesse, King, Carey; Xavier, Alexandre; and Scanlon, Bridget. “Biofuel Expansion in the Ivinhema Basin: Model Development” Poster at the 2014 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, December 15-19, 2014.  Poster as JPG

King, C.  A Systems Approach for Investigating Water, Energy, and Food
Scenarios in East-Central Maui, 
 a report to the Ulupono Initiative.  See Full ReportExecutive Summary and Appendix.

This report seeks to inform actions for Hawaii’s sustainable water use in agriculture on East Maui using a systems approach. Ulupono commissioned this report to address the following questions:
• Is the current use of energy and water for agriculture sustainable?
• Do we have enough water to meet society’s goals of increased local food and renewable energy production without causing unintended consequences?
• How much food and electrical and fuel energy can we produce from the East Maui watershed
while sustainably stewarding our water resources?
• What are the impacts to the broader Maui water and energy systems?

Wallis, P., Ward, M., Pittock, J., Hussey, K., Bamsey, H., Denis, A., Kenway, S., King, C., Mushtaq, S., Retamal, M. & Spies, B. The water impacts of climate change mitigation measuresClimatic Change, 125, 209-220, 2014 (article online).

Sanders, K. T., Blackhurst, M. F., King, C. W. and Webber, M. E. The Impact of Water Use Fees on Dispatching and Water Requirements for Water-Cooled Power Plants in Texas. Environmental Science & Technology, 48 (12), 7128-7134, 2014 (online).

Vincent C Tidwell, Barbara D Moreland, Katie M Zemlick, Barry L Roberts, Howard D Passell, Daniel Jensen, Christopher Forsgren, Gerald Sehlke, Margaret A CookCarey W King, and Sara Larsen. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United StatesEnvironmental Research Letters9 064009, 2014Abstractpdficon_small PDF.

Thermal Front Cover

King, Carey W. (ed.) (2014) Thermal Power Plant Cooling: Context and Engineering, New York, NY, ASME Press, ISBN 978-0-7918-6025-0.  Purchase and browse table of contents at ASME: here.






Cook, Margaret A., King, Carey, and Webber, Michael. “Impacts of Temperature Thresholds on Power Generation in the Upper Mississippi River Basin under different Climate Scenarios,” paper IMECE2014-38908 in Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE 2014 November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Canada.



King, Carey W.Principles for Protecting Freshwater Resources and Biodiversity during a Low-Carbon Energy Transition, a report written for The Nature Conservancy2013pdficon_small PDF  (also see discussion via The Nature Conservancy website here, and the Global Water Forum here.)

Grubert, Emily A., King, Carey W., and Webber, Michael E., “Maui’s Complicated Relationship with Water,” Earth Magazine, August 2013.

King, C.W., Stillwell, A.S., Twomey, K.M., and Webber, M.E., Coherence between water and energy policies, Natural Resources Journal, 53 (1), 2013, 117-215.  pdficon_small PDF

Sanders, Kelly T., King, Carey W., Stillwell, Ashlynn S., and Webber, Michael E., Clean Energy and Water: Assessment of Mexico for Improved Water Services and Renewable Energy, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 15 (5), 2013, 1303-1321 .  Abstract here.

Cook, Margaret A, King, Carey W., and Webber, Michael E., “Implications of Thermal Discharge Limits on Future Power Generation in Texas,” paper IMECE2013-65110, Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE 2013, November 15-21, San Diego, California USA.

Yan, Y.E., Tidwell, V.C., King, C.W., and Cook, M.A., 2013, “Impact of future climate variability on ERCOT thermoelectricity power generation”, ANL/EVS/R-13/2, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. This report is available, at no cost, at  or  pdficon_small PDF.



Alhajeri, N. S., Donohoo, P., Stillwell, A. S., King, C. W., Webster, M. D., Webber, M. E. & Allen, D. T. (2011) Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 044018 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044018. Abstract here.  pdficon_small PDF

Stillwell, A. S., C. W. King, M. E. Webber, I. J. Duncan and A. Hardberger. The Energy-Water Nexus in Texas. Ecology and Society 16 (1): 2, 2011. Online text  pdficon_small PDF

Moorhead, Scott; Pierce, Suzanne A., and Carey King. 2011. Strategies to meet our water and energy needs: Insight from a Texas “Treemap”, Earth, May 2011. Article here.

C.W. King, K.M. Twomey, A.S. Stillwell, and M.E. Webber, “Clean Energy and Water: Assessment of Mexico for improved water services with renewable energy,” Prepared for the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, December 2011.  pdficon_small PDF

Dodder, R., Felgenhauer, T., Yelverton, W., and King, C. “Water and greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with a transition to a low carbon transportation system,” Paper IMECE-63991. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Denver, CO, November 11-17, 2011.

Grubert, E., King, C. W., and Webber, M. E.  “Water for biomass-based energy on Maui, Hawaii,” Paper IMECE-63199. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Denver, CO, November 11-17, 2011.



Stillwell, A. S., King, C. W., and Webber, M. E. Desalination and Long-Haul Water Transfer as a Water Supply for Dallas, Texas: A Case Study Of The Energy-Water Nexus In Texas, Texas Water Journal. 2010, 1 (1), 33-41. Abstract here.  pdficon_small PDF

King, Carey W., Webber, Michael E., and Duncan, Ian J. The Water Needs for LDV Transportation in the United States. Energy Policy. 2010, 38 (2), 1157-1167, DOI: 101016/j.enpol.2009.11.004.  Abstract here.

Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.; and Hardberger, Amy. Energy-Water Nexus in Texas. April 2009. Available at:

King, Carey W., Stillwell, Ashlynn S., Twomey, Kelly M., and Webber, Michael E. Coherence between energy and water policies, prepared for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. September 2010.  Temporarily available at:

Stillwell, A., King, C., and Webber, M. “Desalination and Long-Haul Water Transfer a Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus in Texas,” Paper ES2009-90237, Proceedings of the ASME 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, San Francisco, CA, July 19-23, 2009.



King, Carey W. and Webber, Michael E. Water Intensity of Transportation. Environmental Science and Technology. 2008, 42 (21), 7866-7872; (Policy Analysis) DOI: 10.1021/es800367m.  Abstract here.  pdficon_small PDF

King, Carey W. and Webber, Michael E. The Water Intensity of the Plugged-In Automotive Economy. Environmental Science and Technology. 2008, 42 (12), 4305-4311; (Article) DOI: 10.1021/es0716195. Abstract here.  pdficon_small PDF

– – – Recognized as most downloaded paper in 1st Qtr 2008 for ES&T – – –

King, C., Holman, A., and Webber, M. 2008. Commentary: Thirst for Energy. Nature Geoscience. 1, 283-286.  Abstract  

King, Carey W. and Webber, Michael E. Chapter 6: Energy from Water. Texas Renewable Energy Resources Assessment. December 2008. Available at:

King, Carey W.; Duncan, Ian J.; and Webber, Michael E. Water Demand Projections for Power Generation in Texas. Report to the Texas Water Development Board. August 31, 2008. Available at: DATA: Click here (2008 TWDB Report Appendix C) for Excel sheet of Appendix data on Texas power plants as used in the report.

King, Carey W., Holman, Ashlynn S., and Webber, Michael E. CleanTX Analysis on Water: The Thirst for Power. Primer for the Austin Technology Incubator CleanTX Forum, May 14, 2008.

King, C., Webber, M., and Duncan, I. “Water Intensity of Transportation Fuels: Water Projections for Fuel Adoption Rates of Light Duty Vehicles,” Paper ES2008-54147, Proceedings of the ASME 2nd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Jacksonville, FL, August 10-14, 2008.